By M. Lapidoth, S. Halachmi, D.J. Goldberg
Radiofrequency (RF) has been utilized in many parts of medication for it slow, yet basically won acceptance in aesthetics within the early 2000s. even though preliminary strategies supplied variable effects, the sector of RF has grown dramatically. at the moment, a large number of units which provide an array of applied sciences, every one geared to precise purposes, are out there. during this ebook, a accomplished dialogue of the evolving quarter of RF is supplied, and the present and state-of-the-art applied sciences which span from noninvasive remedies of facial wrinkles to invasive physique contouring methods are mentioned intimately. The methodologies lined comprise thermal and ablative modalities, volumetric and fractional ways, in addition to useful facets of software in scientific perform. integrated also are pearls on sufferer administration and prevention and therapy of issues. eventually, RF-based approaches are in comparison with identical laser and surgical techniques in a risk-benefit evaluate. Reviewing the normal of take care of RF-based remedies and supplying details appropriate for medical decision-making and perform administration, this book is a helpful device for dermatologists, plastic surgeons and all practitioners who use or are considering the creation of RF into perform.
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Extra info for Radiofrequency in Cosmetic Dermatology
For therapeutic and physiotherapeutic treatments, dielectric heating is most appropriate. 13 MHz. The dynamics of these treatments is different than aesthetic procedures. The treatments are stationary, and penetration depth is greater, but RF power densities are lower. 68 MHz. The dielectric heating is dominant at this frequency, providing a possibility of deep homogeneous heating up to 20- to 25-mm depth. It should be mentioned that at high frequencies (more than several MHz), it is necessary to operate at frequencies permitted for industrial, scientific, and medical applications (ISM frequencies).
This means that the travelling electromagnetic wave propagates between the RF amplifier and the impedance matching system. Furthermore, it means that RF voltage is equivalent at all points along the RF path. The voltage U alters in time in accordance with: U = Asin(2πft – ϕ) where A = amplitude of voltage and ϕ = initial phase. This equation means that the voltage reaches the same amplitude periodically at all points along the RF path at different times. A standing wave is sustained between the impedance matching system and the electrode; therefore, at any given point the voltage oscillates between 0 (the node) and twice the amplitude (antinode).
This pain was attributed to the heat caused by the device. Based on the neural gating theory proposed by Melzack and Wall (1962), vibration was introduced into subsequent systems to modify pain fiber recruitment . As described earlier, the most common postprocedural findings are erythema and edema . These are short-lasting in the majority of patients . Edwards et al.  reported that erythema lasted less than 24 h in 50% of patients, and no patients had erythema persisting longer than one week.