Restructured electrical power systems : operation, trading, by Mohammad Shahidehpour; M. Alomoush

By Mohammad Shahidehpour; M. Alomoush

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3. m. SlM~h) 40 30 20 1o 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 80 200 220 2#0 supply shortage = 50 MW 1. 6). The ISO pays $20/MWh(or $55/MWh-$35/MWh)to C~ and $35/MWh(or $70/MWh-$35/MWh) to C2 for the electricity that it has dispatched off. The paymentsto the three participants (generator, C1 and C2) continue until replacementenergy can be provided from the spot market. In some models, additional tasks are assigned to the ISO such as metering, bookkeeping, billing and settlement functions. The ISO collects metering data from meteredbuses, calibrates meters and verifies metered data through tools such as state estimators; parallel metering maybe done by other entities in real-time to support the ISO in the process.

To show the implication of loss factors, let’s consider the following two situations: Case1: Bus2 is the reference bus WhenP1=20 MWis injected at bus 1, Ploss = 2 MW,and 18 MWamves at bus 2. 001 MWis injected at bus 1, Ploss. 0008 MWarrives at bus 2. 8 kW. 2 kW(20 %of the 1 kW)is dissipated loss whenan extra 1 kWis injected at bus 1. Here, the loss factor at bus 1 (LF0 equals 20%. On the other hand, if 1 kW is injected at the referencebus, the loss is 0, andthe loss factor at the reference bus (LF2) is 0%.

To show the implication of loss factors, let’s consider the following two situations: Case1: Bus2 is the reference bus WhenP1=20 MWis injected at bus 1, Ploss = 2 MW,and 18 MWamves at bus 2. 001 MWis injected at bus 1, Ploss. 0008 MWarrives at bus 2. 8 kW. 2 kW(20 %of the 1 kW)is dissipated loss whenan extra 1 kWis injected at bus 1. Here, the loss factor at bus 1 (LF0 equals 20%. On the other hand, if 1 kW is injected at the referencebus, the loss is 0, andthe loss factor at the reference bus (LF2) is 0%.

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