Scientific Foundations of Biochemistry in Clinical Practice by David L. Williams, Vincent Marks

By David L. Williams, Vincent Marks

Aimed toward postgraduates learning for club examinations of the Royal collage of Pathologists and scientists learning for greater examinations equivalent to the MSc, this e-book describes the medical foundations of the biochemical features of patho-physiological procedures - the knowledge received and what the implications suggest

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It is more often merely a physiological variant of normal body habitus of no pathological significance. DEFINITION Obesity can best be described as the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, but as this is both extremely difficult to define and to measure in the living subject, it is usually defined in relation to norms established for weight in subjects of similar age, sex and height to the propositus. These norms do not necessarily coincide with values established for optimum health, especially if this is defined as the weight-for-age that is associated with maximum longevity.

A where p K represents the combined p K for reactions (a) and (b) in equation 1. 1. [COJ, expressed in m m o l / L , can be calculated by multiplying measured Pco by the solubility coefficient for carbon dioxide. 03 if it is expressed in m m H g . Therefore if [HCO3 ] is expressed in m m o l / L and Pco in kPa, a alone hardly contribute to extracellular buffering, just as bicarbonate acting alone is ineffective inside cells. (i). 8 + log The plasma phosphate concentration is only about 2 m m o l / L so that, despite the favourable p K , extracellular phosphate contributes little to buffering.

The production of hydrogen ions is not always a direct consequence of the reaction. Interested readers should consult the references at the end of the chapter for more detailed information. 31 32 Biochemistry in Clinical Practice The rate of these two H generating processes may be much increased in pathological states. The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation + If the equilibrium constant, K , is included in equation 2 the relative concentrations of the reactants at equilibrium can be expressed as follows: a Three very simple compounds are essential for hydrogen ion homeostasis: • Water is ubiquitous and incorporates hydrogen ions which have been buffered by bicarbonate in an unionized (inactive) form.

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