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Additional info for Security and the Turkey-EU Accession Process: Norms, Reforms and the Cyprus Issue
Instead it was ﬁrmly placed within the security arena. However, there was considerable overlap between the countries who were members of Atatürk’s “Europeanization” and the Cold War “westernization”. When Turkey signed an association agreement with Ankara in 1963 eligibility was merely expressed in terms of Europeanness measured very loosely in terms of security value to the West. This soon changed with the inﬂuence of the Birkelbach Report and “European” identity evolved into more normative territory with an expectation of liberal democracy and human rights.
Turkey has itself supplied its opponents with many reasons to oppose it in the years since 1963 but it remains in the process and the real signiﬁcance of the Cold War effect was creating the role for Turkey within the EU. It got it in and it kept it there – but it has not been able to move it forward. 2 The Kosovo Effect The Cold War kick-started the Turkey–EU accession process. It deﬁned Turkey as “European” because it had fallen into the “western” camp at the end of World War II and thereby conﬁrmed its theoretical eligibility to be a member of the European project.
88 22 Security and the Turkey–EU Accession Process In response the EC/EU initiated the PHARE (Poland and Hungary: Actions for Economic Reconstruction) Programme which was later extended to other CEECs. 90 Whilst this made for highly emotive rhetoric, the real reason was much more self-interested: the EU wanted to maintain stability on its border and, as the Balkans fragmented, the necessity of keeping the CEECs stable became apparent. At the Copenhagen European Council in 1993 the EU clariﬁed the Birkelbach Report and lay down its preconditions for entry as the Copenhagen criteria.