Security Communities by Emanuel Adler, Michael Barnett

By Emanuel Adler, Michael Barnett

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The dynamic, positive, and reciprocal relationship between these variables leads to the third tier: the development of trust and collective identity formation. The sequenced and causal relationship between these three tiers is responsible for the production of dependable expectation of peaceful 29 Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett change. Section III takes another step toward a viable research program by offering a heuristic model of three phases in the development of a security community - "nascent," "ascendant" and "mature" and their corresponding indicators.

19 Deutsch and other early explorers of security communities focused on the interstate practices and transnational forces that created the assurance that states would not settle their differences through war. Yet equally important is that states govern their domestic behavior in ways that are consistent with the community. Any discussion of a governance structure, particularly in the context where states have created a stable peace, raises obvious questions regarding the meaning of sovereignty and authority.

See Richard Ned Lebow, "The Long Peace, the End of the Cold War, and the Failures of Realism," International Organization, 48, 2 (1994), pp. 252259, for a good overview and criticism of the neo-realist focus on the role of force for understanding international stability and change. On the polarity debate, see Kenneth Waltz, "The Stability of the Bipolar World," Daedelus 93 (Summer 1964), pp. 881-909; and Emerson Niou and Peter Ordershook, "Stability in Anarchic International Systems," American Political Science Review 84 (December 1990), pp.

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