Shackelford's surgery of the alimentary tract.: Vol. 3,. by Jeremiah G. Turcotte

By Jeremiah G. Turcotte

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5. With pharyngeal contraction, approximation of the pharyngeal wall, soft palate, and posterior tongue creates a closed chamber where the bolus is squeezed into the hypopharynx and through the open cricopharyngeal sphincter. 16] 6. The pharyngeal airway reopens, and the soft palate, tongue, larynx, and hyoid bone return to their resting positions. [ At rest, the resting pressures in the pharyngeal cavity are equal to atmospheric pressure. In Figure 2-1 Segmental activation of the muscles forming the upper, middle, and lower pharyngeal constrictors.

53. : Ueber die Lymphgefäβe des Oesophagus und über seine regionalen Lymphdrüsen mit Berücksichtigung der Verbreitung des Carzinoms. Mitt. Grenzgebiete Med. , 11:634, 1903. I-22 54. Samuelson, S. , Bombeck, C. , and Nyhus, L. : Lower esophageal sphincter competence: Anatomic-physiologic correlation. In DeMeester, T. , and Skinner, D. B. ): Esophageal Disorders: Pathophysiology and Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1985. 55. : The Esophagus: Handbook and Atlas of Endoscopy. Switzerland, Gassmann, 1978.

Cranial to the tracheal sacculation, the laryngeal cartilages 10] [23] [33] develop in the branchial mesoderm during the seventh week. The early development of the lower respiratory system is marked by the sacculation of a median ventral diverticulum of the foregut ( Fig. [ This protrusion of the anterior endodermal wall is the primordium of the trachea and the lungs and appears at the 25-somite 39 44 stage on the twenty-first day[ ] ( Fig. 1-36 ). It rapidly elongates downward and bifurcates into two lateral protrusions, the lung buds (see Fig.

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