By Meena Bose
Bose analyzes the management types and advisory platforms of the 2 presidents, using Alexander L. George's thought of "multiple advocacy," which recommends that presidents systematically overview quite a lot of coverage techniques in a dependent environment with their advisers ahead of you make a decision. Bose reveals that Eisenhower's formal management type ensured that he tested choices completely along with his affiliates sooner than making coverage judgements. Kennedy's casual management type elevated possibilities for entry to the president but in addition overloaded him with element. the advance of Eisenhower's "New glance" nationwide safeguard technique illustrates the advantages of a number of advocacy, while the advance of Kennedy's "Flexible reaction" process demonstrates the issues with now not making use of the sort of approach. At a extra common point, the research unearths that coverage making plans efforts early in an management may be of serious aid to presidents in getting ready their agendas.
Bose additionally unearths that a number of advocacy has vital payoffs for presidential coverage conversation in assisting to make sure that messages don't exhibit unintentional indications. within the quarter of nationwide protection, the place misperceptions can heighten tensions and exacerbate conflicts with adversaries, it really is relatively vital that an administration's rhetoric be in keeping with its policies.
Scholars of the yank presidency and American international coverage will locate Shaping and Signaling Presidential Policy a well-written and punctiliously documented learn of presidential selection making and nationwide protection policy.
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Extra info for Shaping and Signaling Presidential Policy: The National Security Decision Making of Eisenhower and Kennedy
National security in its very first point: The survival of the free world depends on the maintenance by the United States of a sound, strong economy. For the United States to continue a course of federal spending in excess of federal income will weaken and eventually destroy that economy. 26 By assuming a “floating” rather than a “specific” D-day, the administration would be able to reduce its military expenditures. ”27 Despite its earlier approval of these general points in March, the NSC did not immediately adopt NSC 149.
Kennan himself later noted that “as one who had played a permanent part in devising the first reaction to what was seen as the Soviet threat. . ”70 Eisenhower’s own participation in the decision-making process also served to shape the broad contours of the debate. From the very beginning, Eisenhower had insisted on the importance of the “great equation” between military strength and a healthy economy. After the Solarium task forces presented their reports, Eisenhower almost e¥ortlessly summarized their conclusions and discussed the similarities between them.
Based on these discussions, the Planning Board was able to prepare initial papers that set forth how the new administration’s approach di¥ered from its predecessor’s. Perhaps even more importantly, in encouraging such extensive and wideranging debates, Eisenhower was able both to hear what his advisers thought about national security policy and to begin to explain to them his own policy preferences. Eisenhower led his administration’s first national security policy planning exercise about six weeks before he took oƒce.