Shifting the Earth: The Mathematical Quest to Understand the by Arthur Mazer

By Arthur Mazer

Detect how arithmetic and technological know-how have propelled historyFrom historical Greece to the Enlightenment after which directly to glossy occasions, transferring the Earth: The Mathematical Quest to appreciate the movement of the Universe takes readers on a trip prompted by means of the will to appreciate the universe and the movement of the heavens. the writer offers a thought-provoking depiction of the sociopolitical setting during which probably the most well-known scientists in historical past lived after which presents a mathematical account in their contributions.From Eudoxus to Einstein, this interesting publication describes how, starting in precedent days, pioneers within the sciences and arithmetic have dramatically replaced our imaginative and prescient of who we're in addition to our position within the universe. Readers will become aware of how Ptolemy's geocentric version developed into Kepler's heliocentric version, with Copernicus because the serious middleman. the writer explains how one clinical step forward set the level for the following one, and he additionally areas the scientists and their discoveries in the context of background, including:Archimedes, Apollonius, and the Punic WarsPtolemy and the increase of ChristianityCopernicus and the RenaissanceKepler and the Counter-ReformationNewton and the EnlightenmentEinstein and the detonation of the atom bombEach bankruptcy offers the paintings of a unmarried scientist or mathematician, development at the earlier chapters to illustrate the evolutionary strategy of discovery. Chapters start with a story part and finish with a mathematical presentation of 1 of the scientist's unique works. every one of these mathematical shows, together with the part on Einstein's specific relativity, are obtainable utilizing purely easy arithmetic; in spite of the fact that, readers can pass the mathematical sections and nonetheless stick with the evolution of technological know-how and mathematics.Shifting the Earth is a wonderful e-book for a person attracted to the background of arithmetic and the way the hunt to appreciate the movement of the heavens has inspired the wider historical past of humankind.

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For the inner planets, the innermost sphere holds the planet along its equator and imputes a precession of the planet’s orbital plane. For the outer planets, Eudoxus structured the inner two spheres in a manner that creates retrograde motion. The planet sits on the equator of the innermost sphere. 14 PERFECTIONISTS By generating retrograde motion through this final construction, Eudoxus demonstrates his mastery of geometry. Below, we discuss some details of the construction. The presentation fully exploits mathematics that were not available to Eudoxus, including trigonometry, Cartesian coordinates, analytic geometry, linear algebra, and Euler angles.

To his slave attests to the generosity of the employment contract; one could afford a slave only with a high salary. The terms attracted the most able intellects throughout the Hellenic kingdoms. This was their guilded sanctuary in an otherwise harsh world. As noted in Chapter 2, there is a nostalgia associated with pre-Philippic Athenian culture promoting a sentiment that the culture of the Hellenistic age was somewhat inferior. In the case of mathematics, this sentiment is dead wrong. The mathematicians associated with Alexandria, building on the foundations of their predecessors, furthered mathematical knowledge well beyond the Athenians.

38 A HEAVY HAND 39 of Hannibal, the Carthaginian terror who ransacked the Italian peninsula at will. Hannibal crossed over the Alps 5 years earlier with an army of infantry, warrior elephants, and most importantly a Numidian cavalry that provided Hannibal with unmatched mobility on the battlefield. The Romans had engaged Hannibal three times, always with the same result. Hannibal’s cavalry would outflank the Romans, encircle, and defeat them. The defeat at Cannae was the most devastating. The Romans assembled an army of 86,000 to face Hannibal’s 50,000.

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