By Kerry Bernstein
Industry call for for microprocessor functionality has inspired endured scaling of CMOS via a succession of lithography generations. Quantum mechanical boundaries to persisted scaling have gotten easily obvious. partly Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (PD-SOI) know-how is rising as a promising technique of addressing those barriers. It additionally introduces extra layout complexity which needs to be good understood.SOI Circuit layout strategies first introduces the coed or training engineer to SOI equipment physics and its primary idiosyncrasies. It then walks the reader via realizations of those mechanisms that are saw in universal high-speed microprocessor designs. ideas of thumb and comparisons to traditional bulk CMOS are provided to lead implementation. SOI's final virtue, although, may perhaps lie within the designated circuit topologies it helps; a couple of those novel new techniques is additionally described.SOI Circuit layout recommendations attracts upon the most recent literature in addition to the firsthand stories of its authors. it's an excellent advent to the strategies of governing SOI use and gives an organization starting place for extra learn of this intriguing new expertise paradigm.
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Additional resources for SOI Circuit Design Concepts
In any procedure or technique used to evaluate speech quality, there are several conditions to which the test should be subjected. For instance, the evaluation should be performed across multiple speakers and languages, so as to ensure that the speech processing techniques being evaluated are not only independent of the person speaking but also independent of the specific nuances of individual languages. , the speech quality should be sufficiently good irrespective of signal amplitudes. Moreover, the system should be tested in the presence of specific types of noise depending on the intended applications.
The small circles indicate addition and the kn multiplication factors are coefficients known as Reflection Coefficients. Readers are advised to see the references if a detailed explanation or derivations are of interest. From a study of a detailed model of the vocal tract, it is seen that the Reflection Coefficients represent the sound energy that is reflected at the junctions of successive tube sections of the vocal tract (assuming a cascaded tube model for the entire vocal tract). The Reflection Coefficients can be computed from the Direct Form coefficients as given below.
In other words, it defines the “threshold of hearing” of a human ear for a single uncorrupted sound wave. This characteristic varies across the entire audible frequency range, and is therefore typically plotted as a frequency response curve. It must be noted that the Absolute Threshold characteristic of each human being is somewhat different, and therefore a particular Absolute Threshold curve is only relevant for a particular listener. While the biological maximum listening range of human beings is 20 Hz to 20 kHz, the auditory system is typically more sensitive in the 1–4 kHz range, with the minimum required sound level requirement increasing both at lower and higher frequencies.