Specifying Systems: The TLA+ Language and Tools for Hardware by Leslie Lamport

By Leslie Lamport

Spatial data is without doubt one of the such a lot swiftly starting to be components of facts, rife with interesting study possibilities. but, many statisticians are ignorant of these possibilities, and so much scholars within the usa are by no means uncovered to any path paintings in spatial facts. Written to be obtainable to the nonspecialist, this quantity surveys the functions of spatial facts to quite a lot of parts, together with photo research, geosciences, actual chemistry, and ecology. The publication describes the contributions of the mathematical sciences, summarizes the present nation of information, and identifies instructions for examine Pt. I. Getting begun. 1. a bit simple arithmetic. 2. Specifying an easy Clock. three. An Asynchronous Interface. four. A Fifo. five. A Caching reminiscence. 6. a few extra Math. 7. Writing a Specification: a few suggestion -- Pt. II. extra complex subject matters. eight. Liveness and equity. nine. genuine Time. 10. Composing standards. eleven. complicated Examples -- Pt. III. The instruments. 12. The Syntactic Analyzer. thirteen. The TLAT[subscript E]X Typesetter. 14. The TLC version Checker -- Pt. IV. The TLA+ Language. 15. The Syntax of TLA+. sixteen. The Operators of TLA+. 17. The which means of a Module. 18. the traditional Modules

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It has two inputs: D and clock. When clock is 1, the value of D is stored in the flip-flop, and that value appears at an output Q. When clock is 0, the value of D is ignored; the output Q maintains its value. Another type of flip-flop is the SR flip-flop, which has three inputs: S, R and clock. When clock is 0, the previously stored bit is maintained and appears at output Q. When clock is 1, the inputs S and R are examined. If S is 1, a 1 is stored. If R is 1, a 0 is stored. If both are 0, there’s no change.

Since most processors can execute it in milliseconds, it is typically executed thousands of times, and thus a processor is said to be able to execute so many Dhrystones per second. Another commonly-used speed comparison unit, which happens to be based on the Dhrystone, is MIPS. One might think that MIPS simply means Millions of Instructions Per Second, but actually the common use of the term is based on a somewhat more complex notion. Specifically, its origin is based on the speed of Digital’s VAX 11/780, thought to be the first computer able to execute one million instructions per second.

If the two sufficiently match, then the ADC has found a proper encoding. So now the question remains: how do we guess the correct encoding? This problem is analogous to the common computer-programming problem of finding an item in a list. One approach is sequential search, or "counting-up" in analogdigital terminology. , until we find a match. Unfortunately, while simple, this approach in the worst case (for high voltage values) requires 2n comparisons, so it may be quite slow. A faster solution uses what programmers call binary search, or "successive approximation" in analog-digital terminology.

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