Speech Processing in Embedded Systems by Priyabrata Sinha

By Priyabrata Sinha

Speech Processing has swiftly emerged as probably the most common and well-understood software parts within the broader self-discipline of electronic sign Processing. along with the telecommunications purposes that experience hitherto been the most important clients of speech processing algorithms, a number of non-traditional embedded processor functions are bettering their performance and consumer interfaces by using quite a few facets of speech processing.

Speech Processing in Embedded Systems describes numerous components of speech processing, and a few of the algorithms and criteria that handle each one of those parts. the subjects lined contain kinds of Speech Compression, Echo Cancellation, Noise Suppression, Speech acceptance and Speech Synthesis. furthermore this booklet explores a variety of concerns and issues regarding effective implementation of those algorithms on real-time embedded platforms, together with the function performed by way of processor CPU and peripheral functionality.

This quantity is ideal for engineers inquisitive about the layout and implementation of speech processing applications.

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In any procedure or technique used to evaluate speech quality, there are several conditions to which the test should be subjected. For instance, the evaluation should be performed across multiple speakers and languages, so as to ensure that the speech processing techniques being evaluated are not only independent of the person speaking but also independent of the specific nuances of individual languages. , the speech quality should be sufficiently good irrespective of signal amplitudes. Moreover, the system should be tested in the presence of specific types of noise depending on the intended applications.

The small circles indicate addition and the kn multiplication factors are coefficients known as Reflection Coefficients. Readers are advised to see the references if a detailed explanation or derivations are of interest. From a study of a detailed model of the vocal tract, it is seen that the Reflection Coefficients represent the sound energy that is reflected at the junctions of successive tube sections of the vocal tract (assuming a cascaded tube model for the entire vocal tract). The Reflection Coefficients can be computed from the Direct Form coefficients as given below.

In other words, it defines the “threshold of hearing” of a human ear for a single uncorrupted sound wave. This characteristic varies across the entire audible frequency range, and is therefore typically plotted as a frequency response curve. It must be noted that the Absolute Threshold characteristic of each human being is somewhat different, and therefore a particular Absolute Threshold curve is only relevant for a particular listener. While the biological maximum listening range of human beings is 20 Hz to 20 kHz, the auditory system is typically more sensitive in the 1–4 kHz range, with the minimum required sound level requirement increasing both at lower and higher frequencies.

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