By T. G. Fernandes, M. M. Diogo, J. M. S. Cabral
Stem telephone bioprocessing describes the most large-scale bioprocessing concepts for either stem telephone tradition and purification. It envisages the applying of those cells for regenerative drugs and drug screening. Chapters describe bioreactor configurations and stem phone separation recommendations and supply simple definitions and major features of the differing kinds of stem cells, along the molecular mechanisms underlying their self-renewal and differentiation. The publication additionally makes a speciality of methodologies at present used for in vitro stem phone tradition lower than static stipulations together with the problem of xeno-free stem telephone tradition. ultimate chapters current techniques for stem telephone tradition and separation in micro-scale stipulations, with a separate part devoted to the appliance of stem cells for regenerative medicine.
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Extra info for Stem Cell Bioprocessing: For Cellular Therapy, Diagnostics and Drug Development
1998). Sox2, another transcription factor that has been reported to interact with Oct4, is also required for ESC pluripotency (Avilion et al. 2003). Interestingly, the overlapping expression of Sox2 and Oct4 suggests that both factors have comparable functions in the maintenance of ESC pluripotency; in fact, Oct4 and Sox2 also regulate the production of FGF4, which drives ESCs towards lineage commitment. The increase of ERK activity by FGF4 provides a signal that renders pluripotent cells susceptible to lineage inductive cues.
This mechanism suggests that Nanog has a fundamental action in buffering ESCs against FGF4/ERK signaling, resetting the ESCs’ ground state (Silva and Smith 2008). Nanog thus secures self-renewal of ESCs, but the level of expression of Nanog is highly variable in ESCs, creating the ability to differentiate. In fact, a transition state may arise when downregulation of Nanog coincides with increased activation of ERK signaling; this is the so-called primed pluripotent state (Nichols and Smith 2009).
4) and transcription factors mentioned above, the pluripotent state also requires specific epigenetic marks in the DNA. Therefore, there is a need for specific DNA methylation and methylation/acetylation of histones in order for the required genes for pluripotency to be expressed (Okita and Yamanaka 2010). Further, the expression of the enzyme telomerase and its respective activity is highly regulated in stem cells, which allows them to escape senescence and retain their long-term capacity for self-renewal (Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006; Thomson et al.