By Charles E. Hess (auth.), George Bruening, John Harada, Tsune Kosuge, Alexander Hollaender, Gregory Kuny, Claire M. Wilson (eds.)
In August. 1982. a convention was once held on the college of Califor nia. Davis. to debate either molecular and standard methods to plant genetic research and plant breeding. Papers provided on the assembly have been released in Genetic Engineering of crops: An Agricultural standpoint. A moment convention. entitled "Tailoring Genes for Crop Improvement." spon sored via the UC-Davis university of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the College's Biotechnology software. used to be held at Davis in August. 1986. to debate the amazing advances that were made throughout the intervening years within the know-how for gene amendment. move. and expression in crops. This quantity comprises papers that have been awarded at this assembly and offers readers with examples of ways the hot experimental suggestions are getting used to achieve a clearer knowing of the biology of the crops we develop for nutrients and fiber; it additionally discusses how molecular biology methods are getting used to introduce new genes into vegetation for plant breeding courses. we're thankful to the audio system for his or her first-class displays for the convention and expand our honest due to those that contributed manuscripts for this volume.
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However, after elimination of recombinant phages containing repetitive sequences, only 25% to 30% of the tested sequences were X-specific. Sampling errors, contamination of the X-containing peak during flow sorting, and variation in the 30 B. S. LANDRY AND R. W. MICHELMORE proportion of unique sequences among chromos9mes have been advanced to explain the low cloning efficiency. Unequal distribution of the restriction endonuclease sites used for cloning also could have decreased the cloning efficiency of X-derived fragments.
Sensitivity has also been increased with dextran sulfate, which enhances the rate of hybridization and favors the formation of probe networks between partially overlapping sequences (68). This method is most advantageous when the probe is larger than 250 bp and labeled by nick-translation. Polyethylene glycol has been used as a substitute for dextran sulfate (4). Dot Blots Dot blots are an efficient alternative to Southern blots when large populations are screened for the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences.
Whole cosmids or ,\ clones can be employed as probes if interspersed repetitive sequences are neutralized prior to hybridization (65). In humans, 32P-Iabeled cosmid or ,\ clones were prehybridized with a large excess of nonradioactive total genomic DNA; therefore, regions homologous to repeated sequences were unable to hybridize. Only single/low-copy sequences remained single-stranded and free, subsequent to hybridization to membranebound DNA. Chromosome-Specific Libraries The chromosomal position of the character of interest is often known in humans and in plants when aneuploids are available.