By Herman H. Goldstine
In 1942, Lt. Herman H. Goldstine, a former arithmetic professor, used to be stationed on the Moore institution of electric Engineering on the college of Pennsylvania. It used to be there that he assisted within the construction of the ENIAC, the 1st digital electronic computing device. The ENIAC was once operational in 1945, yet plans for a brand new laptop have been already underway. The valuable resource of rules for the hot machine used to be John von Neumann, who turned Goldstine's leader collaborator. jointly they constructed EDVAC, successor to ENIAC. After international warfare II, on the Institute for complex research, they outfitted what was once to turn into the prototype of the present-day computing device. Herman Goldstine writes as either historian and scientist during this first exam of the improvement of computing equipment, from the 17th century during the early Fifties. His own involvement lends a different authenticity to his narrative, as he sprinkles anecdotes and tales liberally via his textual content. In 1942, Lt. Herman H. Goldstine, a former arithmetic professor, was once stationed on the Moore university of electric Engineering on the collage of Pennsylvania. It used to be there that he assisted within the construction of the ENIAC, the 1st digital electronic laptop. The ENIAC was once operational in 1945, yet plans for a brand new computing device have been already underway. The central resource of rules for the hot desktop used to be John von Neumann, who grew to become Goldstine's leader collaborator. jointly they built EDVAC, successor to ENIAC. After global warfare II, on the Institute for complex research, they equipped what was once to develop into the prototype of the present-day laptop. Herman Goldstine writes as either historian and scientist during this first exam of the advance of computing equipment, from the 17th century in the course of the early Fifties. His own involvement lends a distinct authenticity to his narrative, as he sprinkles anecdotes and tales liberally via his textual content.
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Additional resources for The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann
1980]. , 1997]. One other interesting approach is to process speech in subbands across time. The idea is that if unreliable information is detected in a subband it can be ignored. Also certain subbands may be better than others in encoding information about certain acoustic classes. They may also have different properties. Finally, separate processing of spectral subbands could potentially compensate for variability in the relative timing of phonetic events between parts of the spectrum and the temporal pattern for some subbands might be more useful for particular phonetic distinctions.
SD systems are designed to recognize speech from a particular individual; the models are trained on data from that individual. , 1991; Hazen and Glass, 1997]. Adaptive systems are an attempt to combine the advantages of SI and SD systems. When a user first speaks to an adaptive system, the system employs SI models; once speech data from this user has been obtained, the parameters of the models are updated to reflect user-specific traits. While in the last decade how to obtain robust SI systems was the focus of most of the research, recently speaker-adaptive systems have attracted much interest.
Rooms that have hard reflecting surfaces produce a significant reverberant field. A sound spoken in a room is prolonged, with a more or less logarithmic decay (however, irregular decay is often observed in practice), so that it is present to mask subsequent sounds. In speech recorded with a “hands-free”telephone there is often reverberation when the microphone is placed too far from the talker. Because of the recent advances in teleconferencing, hands-free telephony and carbased applications there is an interest in reducing the effects of room reverberation in speech communications.