By S. S. Shvarts
Whereas translating this booklet, i used to be in shut conversation with the writer, S. S. Shvarts (Schwarz), who learn and commented at the whole translated manuscript. specifically, any ambiguities as to the identification of organisms defined merely by means of universal names within the unique textual content have been got rid of, as the writer kindly provided the Latin names in all such situations. Com mon names are retained within the translation, however the Latin names also are extra the place wanted. a number of the terminology utilized in the Russian is a transliteration from English phrases hired now extra by means of ecu employees than american citizens. i've got outlined those phrases or famous their extra universal equivalents utilized in present American literature the place it appeared helpful within the textual content. a last bankruptcy, "Recent paintings at the Evolutionary Ecology of Ani mals," is gifted as Appendix II to the interpretation of the unique textual content. i've got written this bankruptcy with a purpose to replace the fabric awarded within the unique variation released in 1969. The bankruptcy discusses vital fresh contributions appropriate to the subject material provided via Shvarts. i need to thank W. Z. Lidicker, Jr., and Y. B. Linhart for studying this ultimate bankruptcy and supplying very worthwhile feedback and reviews. i'm quite thankful to the writer, S. S. Shvarts, for his cautious analyzing of the translated manuscript.
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RNases are ubiquitous and contamination from our hands and through coughing or other alrborne dust particles can result in degradation of RNA. RNases are notoriously difficult to inactivate, even by boiling. To avoid such contammation, sterile mlcroblological techniques should be observed when handling solutions and reagents. Gloves should be worn at all times. Sterile, disposable plasticware, when newly opened, is generally free from contammatmg RNases. Glassware, except Corex tubes, should be baked at 200-300°C for at least 4 h.
Factors affecting the extraction of mtact ribonucleic acid from plant tissues contaming interfering phenolic compounds. Plant Physiol. 60,543-547. 4. Schultz, D. , Cox-Foster, D. , Mumma, R. , and Medford, J I. (1994) RNA isolation from recalcitrant plant tissue. Plant Mol Biol. Reptr. 12,3 10-3 16. 5. -S. and Vodkin L. 0. (1994) Extraction of RNA from tissues containing high levels of procyamdms that bmd RNA. Plant Mol Biol. Reptr. 12, 132-145. 6. , and Ross, G S. (1990) Changes in mRNA and protein during ripening of apple fruit (Malus domestzca Borkh.
Moreover RNA usually occurs complexed with protein from which it must be released. 1% (v/v) diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC; except Trrs, which reacts), and baking glassware, spatulas, and so forth at 180°C overnight (3). The endogenous RNase level varies with cell type, thus necessary precautions will vary. These may include the use of guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN), phenol, a thiol reagent (IJ-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol), proteinase K, a detergent (sodium dodecyl [lauryl] sulphate, iV-dodecyl sarkosine [sarkosyl]), placental RNase inhibitor (a protein found in placenta [4J and other tissues, and is sold under a variety of trade names), and vanadyl ribonucleoside complexes (5).