The Kingdom of Ireland, 1641-1760 (British History in by Toby Barnard

By Toby Barnard

How did the Protestants achieve a monopoly over the operating of eire? to respond to this query, Toby Barnard starts off with an exam of the Catholics' try and regain regulate over their very own affairs, first within the 1640s after which among 1689 and 1691. Barnard then outlines how army defeats doomed the Catholics to subjection, permitting Protestants to tighten their grip over the govt, and is going directly to learn intimately the mechanisms - either nationwide and native - by which this keep an eye on was once exercised. concentrating on the provinces in addition to Dublin, and at the topics in addition to the rulers, Barnard brings an abundance of strange facts to endure on Irish lives.

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Equally unsettling was the encouragement to Catholic parishioners to withhold the payment of tithes: the principal income of the Protestant clergy. 63 Isolated incidents warned of a popular hostility to the personnel and property of the Church of Ireland. 64 Episodes of this sort brought predictions of more widespread violence reminiscent of the bloodshed in and after 1641. Trinity College as a precaution tried to transport 4000 ounces of its silver plate to England on the pretext that it needed to be refashioned, but in reality to guard against the possible depredations of rivals.

As in the Cromwellian campaign, so in 1690–1, eastern regions, more accessible and better assimilated to England, fell more quickly to the invaders. Irish strength was concentrated in the west. There, at Limerick, Patrick Sarsfield resisted. In defence of this stronghold, the Jacobite forces prepared to repel their adversaries who had crossed the main natural frontier, the wide River Shannon. At Aughrim on 12 July 1691, despite early signs of a Jacobite victory, William’s army triumphed. The French commander, St Ruth, was killed; soon afterwards Tyrconnell died: further blows to drooping morale.

Protestants granted land in the 1640s and 1650s were not summarily stripped of the new possessions. Tortuous REBELLIONS AND RECONQUESTS, 1641–1691 35 legal processes between 1663 and 1667, overseen by a Court of Claims in Dublin, obliged Protestant proprietors to disgorge as much as a third of the recent grants. Others would be required to exchange attractive portions for lands in remoter and infertile regions. Ardent Protestants contended that the nascent Protestant interest would be weakened and the pacification and enrichment of the kingdom – rather than of themselves – would be retarded.

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