The Middle East in the New World Order by Haifaa A. Jawad (eds.)

By Haifaa A. Jawad (eds.)

The 1990-91 Gulf battle, the Israeli-PLO contract, cases of political and fiscal reform, and the novel political reassertion of Islam, all point out that the post-Cold battle heart East is within the grip of dramatic adjustments. This has generated enormous enthusiasm. but such transformation to the political panorama convey with them daunting problems. the center East faces a number of difficulties urgently short of strategies if a winning new international order is to be outfitted at the ruins of the outdated. during this booklet, a global staff of students addresses those matters, and considers the choices for the political, social, and financial reconstruction of the quarter. issues coated contain: democratisation; the Arab country process within the new worldwide atmosphere; the civil conflict in Arabia; safeguard constructions; the Arab-Israeli clash; the function and strength contribution of pan-Islamism and pan-Arabism; and the clients for financial revival. all through, the linkages among nearby dynamics and the altering worldwide surroundings are highlighted. Case-studies are drawn from the total sector: from North Africa to the Gulf, and from Syria to Yemen.

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He argues that it would be misleading to 'mistake fully sovereign Western parliaments for councils with limited advisory power'. While the term majlis is used in the Middle East to denote a national assembly, Ayalon asserts it is a word 'with no traditional political connotations' and must be qualified, as in al-majlis ai-ali (a cabinet or senate), majlis al-umma, (a national assembly), mqjlis shura al-madaris (a council of education), and so on. 35 Yet it is as well to remember that many a Western parliament has been dismissed as simply a 'taIking shop' with little authority but to deliberate and advise a recalcitrant executive.

This brings us back to the question of whether liberal democracy is desired in the Middle East. 52 It is perhaps inevitable that the Arab states should resent the West and not wish to emulate liberal democratic political structures, but this ambivalence to liberal democracy has not inhibited the current discussion of democratization. As Esposito and Piscatori point out, modes of political expression are not static: It is difficult to ascertain or to predict whether the evolution of Muslim thinking about democracy will lead them to convert their views into action and what particular form democratization might take in diverse Muslim cultures.

3. Insistence on the unity of Iraqi territory and political unity. 4. Respect for national and social pluralism. 5. Commitment to the new internal trend to set up systems based on human freedom. 40 A senior official in the US State Department, Edward Djerejian, has acknowledged that the United States had been in contact with the Iraqi opposition before SAIRI issued the programme in February 1992. '41 Why Islamic groups in the post-cold-war-post:-GulfWar international environment may feel the necessity to mouth liberal democratic sentiments is unclear.

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