The Political System of Brazil by Dana de la Fontaine, Thomas Stehnken

By Dana de la Fontaine, Thomas Stehnken

This quantity provides in-depth insights into the polity, politics and rules of the Brazilian political process. It reassesses the strategies of switch because the country's go back to democracy within the Eighties, within the mild of autocratic societal buildings and suboptimal institutional layout, at the one hand, and the political and fiscal achievements saw, at the different. of their contributions, most sensible Brazilian and foreign students seriously study the advance of the political method with a spotlight at the Lula and Rousseff administrations, and position their activities and screw ups within the socio-political and monetary context with a view to discover the underlying institutional buildings, constellations and diverging pursuits of actors on a number of decision-making degrees and in several political fields. it's the vital target of this publication to offer a differentiated portrait of the present political panorama and ultimate contradictions in Latin America's biggest country.

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The country’s industrial orientation dominated the political sphere and pervaded the public opinion in such a way that it created the first generation of Brazilian entrepreneurs and gave the industrialization process a renewed impulse. The prevailing economic and political current of that period was based on the concept of “industrial revolution”, through which consciousness of the inevitable need for structural change was spread. There was social consensus that the time had come for Brazil to become a part of the historical movement of capitalism and reach its economic maturity by multiplying the amount of factories, as the advanced nations of Europe and the United States had done.

The administration of President Geisel (1974–1979) was marked by a slow, gradual and supposedly ‘safe’ liberalization process. The recognition of the unexpected victory of the opposition party (MDB) in the elections of November 1974 (federal and state deputies, and senate representatives) did not hinder the closure of Congress in April 1977, and rather, it stimulated it. This enabled the promulgation of a series of measures that changed the electoral legislation in detriment of the opposition, so as to ensure a majority in Congress for the ruling party in the 1978 elections; thereby the president would be chosen through the Electoral College in 1979 (Arturi, 2001: 17).

To substitute imports was not an objective nor a model, but rather a consequence. Development was pursued in stages: the first stage introduced the manufacturing industry (indu´stria de transformac¸a˜o), the second focused on base industries, and the last on creating third generation ventures and technologies. These phases should not be taken as distinct periods, because they sometimes appeared intertwined in simultaneous projects; however they do mark an industrial evolution over time. The foreign companies only had a secondary role in the industrialization process that had a strong domestic focus.

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