By Maria Lorena Cook
During the Nineties, governments, employers, and foreign organizations pressed for higher flexibility in exertions rules all through a lot of Latin the US. during this comparative examine of six Latin American international locations, Maria Lorena cook dinner indicates why those universal pressures for flexibility ended in different exertions reform results. Her exam of the function of geared up exertions in shaping reform highlights the stipulations less than which hard work can nonetheless wield energy regardless of a decline in total strength.
Cook employs historic case reviews and coupled comparisons to research the political dynamics that resulted in reasonable degrees of work reform in Argentina and Brazil, large switch in Chile and Peru, and no reform in Mexico and Bolivia. Her publication identifies the array of factors—labor circulate concepts, democratization and financial commencing, foreign pressures, felony frameworks, and political legacies—that verify no matter if exertions reforms usually tend to tension flexibility or rights.
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Extra resources for The Politics of Labor Reform in Latin America: Between Flexibility and Rights
Directions in labor reform 37 to defend them. Neither strong unions nor a strong state, therefore, were seen as necessary counterweights to capital. This individualistic view of rights also informed flexibility advocates’ view of unions. Workers have a ‘‘right’’ to protection from the abusive practices of unions, which are often depicted as unrepresentative and undemocratic institutions (Nelson 1994). This view of unions provided the justification for policies advocating ‘‘right-to-work’’ and free association as an individual choice.
During democratic transitions, nonlabor governments also implemented labor-friendly policies. The premium governments placed on political stability and accommodation during democratic transition produced a generally favorable political context for labor, even when the economy was unfavorable. Governments were less likely to use repression in response to worker mobilizations, and interest in stability meant a higher likelihood that labor would receive concessions. Indeed, strike activity increased 17.
These analysts argue that little actual deregulation (lessening of regulation) occurred in Latin America (Co´rdova 1996). Instead there was a ‘‘re-regulation’’ of markets in terms that were generally more favorable to capital and employers, together with a decline in workers’ security in areas of employment, representation, and income (Standing 1997). Although labor reform outcomes have varied across the region, initial policies were often similar. This was due to the key role that ifis such as the imf, World Bank, and Inter-American Development Bank played in shaping policy by linking loans and development assistance with calls for labor market reform.