The Raising of Intelligence: A Selected History of Attempts by H. H. Spitz

By H. H. Spitz

The background of makes an attempt to bring up the intelligence of mentally retarded participants is wrought with controversy. Spanning the years from 1800 to the current, this ebook deals a serious overview of the tools and philosophy at the back of those efforts. a desirable contribution to the long-standing debate at the malleability of intelligence and the impression of heredity and environment.

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Kuhlmann (1940) perhaps put it best when he noted that the acquisition of skill and information was being confused with the acquisition of intelligence. Séguin’s (1866/1907, p. 54) statement that “idiots have been improved, educated, and even cured,” at first suggests 4The idea that function determines structure is reflected in the Lamarckian hypothesis that structural changes are passed down hereditarily and account for evolutionary changes. Lamarck was greatly influenced by Locke and Condillac (Oppenheim, 1979), so we see once again the widespread influence of the empiricist position.

In 1906 it became the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded, and in 1933 the American Association on Mental Deficiency (Milligan, 1961). , through more internal organs” (p. 20). This list of pronouncements reveals Séguin’s ultimate debt to Locke and Condillac’s sensory philosophy, and also clearly illustrates that methods for educating retarded persons were drawn from the methods used to teach deaf-mute (and blind) individuals to communicate. Condillac, in fact, believed that we learn to see objects, and do so by generalizing from the sense of touch.

155). 3 Using this revised scale he tested 378 residents at the Vineland School and related their mental ages to three levels of retardation (idiot, imbecile, and moron) and to the levels of work they could perform. Additionally, his five assistants tested about 2,000 nonretarded children in the Vineland public schools (Goddard, 1910a, 1910b, 1911). Kuhlmann (1911, 1912a, 1912b, 1914a) published an extended translation and an early revision, and analyzed the scores of 1,006 retarded children and 1,000 public school children.

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