The Security Environment in the Asia-Pacific (National by Hung-Mao Tien, Tun-Jen Cheng

By Hung-Mao Tien, Tun-Jen Cheng

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16 In a few special cases, however, militaries developed an internal system of revenue that either supplemented or obviated the need for state fiscal support. This pattern was most common in traditional empires, many of which encountered considerable difficulty in raising sufficient revenue to finance their standing armies. For example, the armed forces Page 13 of Czarist Russia, Ottoman Turkey, and India before the British all engaged in agriculture and handicraft industries to supplement government fiscal support,17 as did the Austrian Militärgrenze and the Prussian Landwehr.

D. 589–907), when the central government distributed land to peasants under the "equal-field" system. In return, the peasants were required not only to serve in the armed forces, but also equip themselves from the profits generated by their agricultural production. The second and more common self-sufficiency policy used by imperial dynasties to fund the armed forces called for the military itself to engage in production to supplement governmental expenditures. D. 220), and served as the dominant paradigm for Chinese imperial military economics for almost two millennia.

220), and served as the dominant paradigm for Chinese imperial military economics for almost two millennia. 54 As in the Yuan, the military under the Ming had a dedicated farming role in the areas under its control. At the beginning of the dynasty, these areas did not include co-located peasant lands, since the military was not allowed to confiscate land for farming. 3 million hectares. On this land, total output was supposed to be given to the government, but over time the military was able to negotiate a more equitable bargain, retaining at least 50 percent of the output.

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