By by Daniel Karlsson.

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**Additional resources for Verification of component-based embedded system designs**

**Example text**

However, the state space generally grows exponentially with the size of the transition system. This problem is usually referred to as the state space explosion problem. A major consequence of the state space explosion problem is that many designs are difficult to formally verify in a reasonable amount of time. As, basically, every reachable state in the state space is visited one by one by the classical model checking algorithm, it is not feasible to check very large systems with a reachable state space of above 106 states.

However, when verifying the interaction of several components through a glue logic, interconnecting the components, several drawbacks arise. The environment of a given component, in this case, consists of models of the glue logic and of other components, expressed in the particular design representation used. Therefore, assumption formulas have to be extracted from these models with respect to the property to be verified. That is not always easy, especially considering that the environment components, in turn, depend on yet other components.

ACTL formulas do not have any existential path quantifiers and negation only occurs in front of atomic propositions. Hence, AGAF p and AF ¬ p are ACTL formulas, whereas AGEF p and ¬AF p are not. As mentioned previously, CTL can only express relative time, such as “ p must be true some time in the future”. In many applications, however, it is desired to set a time limit within which a certain property must become true. ” This time limit is indicated by a subscript on the temporal operators. AF∼ x p , where ∼ ∈ {<, ≤, =, ≥ , >} intuitively indicates the relationship between the time of the current state and the time point x when p must be true.