By Miriam R. Lowi
Why do states in arid areas fail to cooperate in sharing water assets and the way can they be inspired to take action? In a provocative and well-researched research of the background and present prestige of the dispute over the waters of the Jordan River basin and its courting to the Arab-Israeli clash, Dr. Miriam Lowi explores the solutions to those questions. This e-book might be of worth to all people with an curiosity within the area, and to these curious about the environmental problems with the politics of water shortage.
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Extra info for Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin
First, we reconstruct the history of the Jordan waters conflict from its inception in the 1950s until 1992. And for comparative purposes we outline the experiences in three other river basins. Second, we posit a framework for analyzing riparian disputes in protracted conflict settings. 61 They are: (1) resource need/dependence: the degree to which a state is dependent upon the water supply of the basin for its socio-economic development, both absolutely and relative to the other riparian states; (2) relative power resources: the composite of capabilities - economic, military, and political resources - in terms of both their quantity and composition, available to one state relative to that of the other state(s) with which it interacts.
37 Finally, compared to some of the other countries of the region, the extent of stream flow available to Israel is small. 3 Israel: renewable fresh water resources, 1984/85 Source Quantity (mem per year) River flow Upper Jordan Yarmouka Groundwater Floodwaterb Recycled wastewater Losses 580 100-125 1,200 15 30-110 -60 1,865-1,970 Total a Including floodflow. Excluding Yarmouk floodflow. Source: compiled from Schwarz, "Israeli Water Sector"; interviews (1985-86,1991). 4 Israel: water consumption data Total Consumption sector (Percentage of total) Year (mem per year) Agriculture Domestic Industrial 1960 1965 1970 1975 1979 1988a 1,138 1,330 1,570 1,600 1,700 1,950 81-2 80-9 79-7 75-7 73-5 680 14-7 150 15-3 18-4 19-5 240 41 41 50 5-9 7-0 90 a Approximate figures Source: Vardi, "National Water Resources," p.
The core empirical material, on the conflict over the waters of the Jordan River system, is treated in the remaining chapters. The historical analysis of the conflict begins in Chapter 4, with a discussion of the Johnston mission to the Middle East (1953-56), the first attempt to implement a functional arrangement and establish a "regime" for the utilization of the waters of the Jordan system among the basin states. We analyze the outcome of the Johnston effort in terms of the variables that guide state behavior.