By World Health Organization
Tularaemia is a bacterial zoonotic illness of the northern hemisphere. The bacterium ( Francisella tularensis ) is extremely virulent for people and various animals corresponding to rodents, hares, and rabbits. people can infect themselves through direct touch with contaminated animals, by way of arthropod bites, through ingestion of infected water or meals, or by means of inhalation of infective aerosols. there isn't any human-to-human transmission. as well as its normal incidence F. tularensis conjures up nice crisis as a possible bioterrorism agent. F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is among the such a lot infectious pathogens recognized in human drugs. for you to stay away from laboratory-associated an infection, defense measures are wanted and as a result, medical laboratories don't mostly settle for specimens for tradition. in spite of the fact that, for the reason that scientific administration of situations is dependent upon early popularity, there's an pressing want for diagnostic companies. this primary version of WHO guidance on tularaemia offers history details at the affliction, describes the present top practices for its prognosis and coverings in people, indicates measures to be taken in case of epidemics and offers counsel on the way to deal with F. tularensis within the laboratory. the objective viewers contains clinicians, laboratory group of workers, public medical examiners, veterinarians, and the other individual with an curiosity in zoonoses.
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Extra resources for WHO Guidelines on Tularaemia
Tularensis subspecies holarctica is mainly associated with streams, ponds, lakes, rivers, and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats. F. tularensis is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infectious animals, arthropod bites, aerosols, or intake of contaminated food or water. Human-to-human transmission by aerosols or via arthropods has never been described. More information on the various vectors for transmission can be found in chapter 3. 1 Concept of surveillance Surveillance of disease is the continuing scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a disease that are pertinent to effective control.
Tularensis subspecies holarctica, suggesting the former subspecies to be older in evolutionary terms. , 2004). Pulsedfield gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has also been used to define two subpopulations of type A (type A-east and type A-west) in the USA. , 2006). 6 Biosafety considerations Human error, poor laboratory techniques, and misuse of equipment cause the majority of laboratory-acquired infections. 1. A compendium of technical methods to avoid or minimize such problems can be found in Part IV of the WHO Laboratory Biosafety Manual (World Health Organization, 2004b).
2. Animal excrement: extensive die-offs of tularaemia-susceptible animals during epizootics may render the capture of living animals and collection of sufficient samples more difficult. tularensis-specific antigen may be performed. 3. Ticks from captured animals – for detection of F. tularensis, ticks may be collected from host mammals or with a drag. Removing ticks from captured animals is relatively simple and can be carried out simultaneously when collecting fleas and other ectoparasites.